The rapid development of technology and the great achievements made in health in recent decades have resulted in changes in demographic issues. Discussions concerning high fertility rates have been replaced by discussions relating to low fertility and its impacts, in not only developed countries, but also some developing countries where fertility has reached replacement level. Concerns regarding mortality have been gradually replaced by concerns on aging, provision of social security to the elderly, and living a healthy life. Migration, both internal and international, has increased in many countries as a consequence of globalization and economic development.
Vietnam is an even more interesting case for population and urbanization studies as the country has gone through socioeconomic reforms and rapid change over the past three decades. Fertility was already at replacement level, mortality relatively low given the country’s level of economic development, and migration and urbanization has increased quickly in the past decade.
Major areas of interest of PHAD in population and urbanization studies include:
- Low fertility in developing countries;
– Aging population and social security for the elderly;
– Disability and health expectancy;
– Internal migration to urban areas and its impacts;
– Labor and marriage migration;
– Urbanization and social problems, especially health problems, in urban areas.